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History of Indian Cinema

, 1906-2000

 
 
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> History of Indian Cinema, 1906-2000
Bawra Jay
post Aug 12 2004, 02:14 AM
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Another one from my cpl of years old archive.... :-


1907 : J.F. Madan opens the Elphinstone Picture Palace in Calcutta, the first of his cinema chain. Pathe establishes office in India.

1908 : Abdulallay Esoofally, a South Asian and Singaporean traveling showman starts exhibiting in India.

1910 : Dadasaheb Phalke attends a screening of The Life of Christ at P.B. Mehta’s American - Indian Cinema and decides to become a filmmaker himself.

1911 : Anandi Bose, Debi Bose and others start the Aurora Cinema Co. showing films in tents as part of a variety bill. The Coronation Durbar of King George V held in Delhi is filmed by several Indians. (S.N. Patankar, Hiralal Sen, Madan Theatres)

1912 : Two amateurs N.G. Chitre and R.G. Torney attempt a narrative film, about 1500 feet long, of a play - Pundalik.

1913 : Phalke’s Raja Harishchandra, 3700 feet long, opens on 21st April to a select audience and opens commercially on 3rd May in Bombay’s Coronation Cinematograph.

1914 : Phalke shows his first three features - Raja Harishchandra, Mohini Bhasmasur and Satyavan Savitri in London. R. Venkiah and R.S. Prakash build Madras’ first permanent cinema, The Gaiety.

1915 : First South Indian feature - R. Nataraja Mudaliar’s Gopal Krishna.

1916 : Universal Pictures set up Hollywood’s first Indian Agency.

1917 : J.F. Madan’s Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra is the first feature made in Calcutta. Phalke makes a short film about filmmaking, How Films Are Made.

1918 : The Indian Cinematograph Act modeled on that of Britain defines the term of censorship and cinema licensing. Phalke’s Hindustan Film Company is established. Patankar’s Ram Vanvas is the first Indian Serial with a length of 20,000 feet.

1919 : Baburao Painter starts the Maharashtra Film company at Kolhapur. Dwarkadas Sampat forms the Kohinoor Film Company.

1920 : Film Censor Boards set up in Bombay, Madras, Calcutta and Rangoon. Ardheshir Irani starts his first studio, Star Film Company. Nala Damayanti is first International Co-production. Suchet Singh, who had trained in Hollywood releases Shakuntala starring Dorothy Kingdom. The Bengali Film Weekly Bijoli starts.

1921 : Kohinoor’s Bhakta Vidur (1921) runs foul of the censors as its protagonist bears more than an uncanny resemblance to Mahatma Gandhi. Dhiren Ganguly makes the Anti-West satire England Returned. R.S. Prakash starts the Star of the East Film Company. In Calcutta, Anandi Bose starts Aurora Film Corporation, a distribution company.

1922 : Entertainment Tax on Film exhibition is levied in Calcutta. Rewashankar Pancholi starts Empire Film Distributors in Karachi and Lahore, importing American films.

1923 : Entertainment tax of 12-½ % is levied in Bombay. The Saurashtra Kinemograph is set up in Rajkot. The elite literary journal Bharati (founded in 1877) carries a serialized history of Bengali cinema.

1924 : Dhiren Ganguli is expelled by the Nizam from Hyderabad for exhibiting Razia Begum. India’s first periodical exclusively devoted to cinema Mouj Majah (Gujarati) is launched in Bombay by J.K. Dwivedi. Nanubhai Desai and others start Saraswati Film. Maneklal Patel starts Krishna Film. Kamala Movietone started in Lahore.

1925 : The first major film adaptation of the social reform novel - Baburao Painter’s Savkari Pash. Fatima Begum, probably the first Indian woman producer, starts her production company and debuts with Bulbul-e-Parastan. Sharda Film is started and formalizes the stunt film genre. The Indo-German co-production The Light of Asia is released abroad to great critical acclaim. The Madurai Bala Shanmughananda Sabha is started dominating pre-independence Tamil Theatre and film.

1926 : Foundation of the Punjab Film Corporation in Lahore, inaugurating the Punjabi Film Industry. Ardheshir Irani starts Imperial Films in partnership with Abdulallay Esoofally. Vande Mataram Ashram is censored and briefly banned. The journal Photoplay starts in Calcutta.

1927 : Indian Kinema Arts Studio starts in Calcutta. On October 6, Government of India announces appointment of a Committee of Enquiry, The Indian Cinematograph Committee. Film journals Movie Mirror (Madras) and Kinema (Bombay) are started.

1928 : The Indian Cinematograph Committee (
1927-28) publishes its report. The British administration ignores the report. A.R. Kardar starts the United Players Corporation in Lahore. First Malayalam feature - J.C. Daniel’s Vigathakumaram. R. Padmanabhan founds the associated Film Studio in Madras.

1929 : Wall Street crashes ending negotiations about a major Hollywood expansion into India. Several important studios are started among them Prabhat film Company in Kolhapur, Ranjit Movietone in Bombay, British Dominion Films Studio and Aurora Film corporation in Calcutta and General Pictures Corporation in Madras. The Gujarati film periodical Chitrapat and the Moving Picture Monthly are launched in Bombay. Universal’s Melody of Love is the first sound feature released in India at the Elphinstone Picture Palace. Bengali monthly Deepali launched.

1930 : Sailajananda Mukherjee starts the Bengali film weekly Bioscope reporting on the Hollywood, Bombay and Calcutta film industries and publishing reviews, pre-release synopses of films, industrial surveys and occasionally essays about technical and aesthetic issues. Ambalal Patel and Chimanlal Desai start Sagar Film. Gubbi Veeranna starts production with the Gubbi-Karnataka Films Corporation at the Malleshwaram Studios in Bangalore. First Film society in India known as Punjab Cinema Art Society.

1931 : Alam Ara is India’s first sound film. B.N. Sircar founds New Theatres. Several Madan Theatres productions follow in quick successions with vastly superior sound systems. Pancholi’s Empire Talkie Distributors acquires rights to RKO - Radio productions and RCA - Photophone sound equipment. The Bengali film weeklies Chitralekha and Batayan and literary quarterly Parichay start.

1932 : First sound feature in Gujarati (Narasinh Mehta). The East India film Co. starts in Calcutta pioneering Bengali, Tamil and Telegu filmmaking. The Motion Picture Society of India (MPSI) is set up to represent the Indian Film Industry. Hindi weekly Cinema Sansar launched in Bombay. In Bengal the monthly Chitrapanji includes serious essays by filmmakers.

1933 : Prabhat Studio moves to Pune. Its Sairandhri processed and printed in Germany becomes India’s first colour film. Kolhapur Cinetone is started. Wadia Movietone is founded. Vijay Bhatt and others start Prakash Pictures. Vel Pictures and Tamil Nadu talkies are launched in Madras. Himanshu Rai’s Karma is premiered in London. The air - conditioned Regal cinema opens in Bombay.

1934 : Bombay Talkies is established by Himansu Rai and Devika Rani. East India Film Company’s Seeta directed by Debaki Bose is shown at Venice Film Festival. First sound features in Oriya (Seeta Bibaha) and Kannada (Bhakta Dhruva). Seeta Kalyanam made by Vel Pictures is the first sound feature made in Madras. Ranjit Studio’s Toofan Mail is the Hindi Cinema’s first major success in the stunt film genre. Hindi film periodical Chitrapat is launched in Delhi. Bengali film weekly Ruprekha starts.

1935 : First All-India Motion Picture Convention is held. New Theatres Devdas directed by P.C. Barua becomes reference point in Hindi and Bengali Cinema. New Theatres’ Dhoop Chaon establishes playback singing. Launch of the seminal film monthly Filmindia. The Quetta earthquake takes place on May 21. Its after effects are filmed by P.V. Pathy. First films in Punjabi (Sheila) and Assamese (Joymati). Madras United Artisits started at Salem. First Trade journal started by Motion Picture Society of India.

1936 : Amar Jyoti is shown in Venice. Master Vinayak and cameraman Pandurang Naik co-found Huns Pictures. Jaddanbai starts Sangeet Films with films featuring her daughter Nargis as a child artiste. Sohrab Modi and Rustom Modi start Minerva Movietone. The Bengal Motion Picture Association is formed in Calcutta. The second All-India Motion Picture Convention held at Madras. Ardershir Irani sets up cinecolour process laboratory with Wolf M. Henius as chief technician.

1937 : Indian Motion Picture Producers Association (IMPPA) founded in Bombay. Sant Tukaram receives special jury mention at Venice Film Festival. Imperial Film Company releases colour film Kisan Kanya using Cinecolour process. First songless film - J.B.H. Wadia’s Naujawan. The Amateur Cine Society of India formed in Bombay by P.V. Pathy, Stanley Jepson and Rudi Van Leyden. Bengali Film weekly Kheyali founded.

1938 : South Indian Film Chamber of Commerce formed in Madras. Indian Motion Picture Distributors Association set up in Bombay. Duniya Na Mane (
1937) shown in Venice. Bombay Talkies makes probably the first officially commissioned ad film on Lever’s Dalda cooking oil for the Lintas Advertising Agency. The first Malayalam sound film, Balan. The Indian Screen Gazette is started by Wadia Movietone. P.V. Pathy films a three-reeler on the Haripura Congress for the Gazette.

1939 : Indian Film Industry celebrates its silver jubilee and holds Indian Motion Picture Congress in Bombay bringing together allied unions and trade associations to discuss problems. Vauhuni Pictures is started by B.N. Reddy and Gemini by S.S. Vasan. Film Industry, a trade newspaper is started in Bombay.

1940 : Film Advisory Board set up in Bombay to mobilize public support through war propaganda films. Himanshu Rai dies. Devika Rani takes over production control of Bombay Talkies. P.K. Atre, Master Vinayak and others start Navyug Chitrapat with public finance.

1941 : Wadia Movietone’s Court Dancer (English) released at Metro in Bombay and sent to the USA. D.M. Pancholi’s Khazanchi becomes a trendsetter for its foot-tapping music by Ghulam Haider. First Pushtu Film - Sarhad pictures Laila Majnu. V. Shantaram splits with his partners at Prabhat. He briefly joins Film Advisory Board as Chief Producer after his predecessor Alex Shaw leaves for London.

1942 : Production hit due to shortages of raw stock. Government restricts lengths of films to 11,000 feet to conserve stock for war propaganda films. Mehboob Khan, Shantaram, Homi Wadia and A.R. Kardar set up their independent Film Production Units. The Bombay Film Society is formed. First film in Sindhi, Ekta and Marwari, Nazrana. V.P. Sathe and others start the journal Sound featuring politics, fiction, reviews and essays on Indian Film.

1943 : Government imposes control of supply of raw stock. Exhibition of ‘approved’ propaganda films made compulsory under Defence of India Rules 44A. Kismet one of the biggest hits in Indian Film history is released. Information Films of India is started. K. Ramnoth starts the Cine Technicians Association (CTA) of South India. Court Dancer finds release in the USA. Kailash Mukhopadhyay starts the seminal Bengali Film monthly, Rupamancha.

1944 : Government appoints Film Advisory Committee to regulate distribution of raw film. Increase in Entertainment Tax in Bombay, Madras, United Province and Central Province. Death of Dadasaheb Phalke.

1945 : Film Trade representatives resign from the Film Advisory Committee. Control of distribution of raw film stock removed.

1946 : Information Films of India disbanded. Dharti ke Laal produced by Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA) and directed by K.A. Abbas wins critical acclaim at home and abroad. Chetan Anand’s Neecha Nagar shown at the Cannes Film Festival. Dr. Kotnis ki Amar Kahani made as a war-effort film. Ranakdevi establishes the Gujarati Cinema as a financially viable industry.

1947 : Vijay Bhatt’s Ram Rajya (1943), A.R. Kardar’s Shah Jehan(1946) and V.Shantaram’s Dr. Kotnis ki Amar Kahani shown at Canadian National Exhibition in Totonto. AVM Film Co. starts with Nam Iruvar. Paul Zils and Fali Billimoria start the Documentary Unit - India. Udaya Studios is the first film studio in Kerala. Satyajit Ray, Chidananda Das Gupta and others start the Calcutta Film Society. Foundation of the Bengali film weekly Rupanjali. Deaths of Master Vinayak, K.L. Saigal.

1948 : Government revives the production of documentaries and newsreels. S.S. Vasan’s Chandralekha is his first major hit in Hindi. Uday Shankar’s Kalpana is applauded in India and abroad for its innovation and artistry. RK Films with Raj Kapoor as Producer and Director debuts with Aag. Ajit is made on 16mm Kodachrome and blown up to 35mm. Nehru announces a freeze on construction of movie theatres. The Bengali film monthly Chitrabani is initiated.

1949 : June 30. Government re-introduces compulsory exhibition of ‘approved’ documentary films. Countrywide closure of cinemas in protest against the Government’s taxation policy. Entertainment Tax is raised to 50% in the Central Provinces and 75% in West Bengal. Indian Cinematograph 1918 amended to include new censorship classification for ‘Adult’ and ‘Unrestricted’ exhibitions of films. Film Enquiry Committee appointed under chairmanship of S.K. Patil. Films Division is set up. Dharti ke Lal is the first film to receive widespread release in the U.S.S.R. Dev Anand and Chetan Anand start Navketan Productions.

1950 : Various Film Trade Organizations confer to decide upon formation of Film Federation of India (FFI) as an apex body. Death of Rai Bahadur Chuni Lall, President of IMPAA and MPSI and one of the architects of FFI. The Pakistan Government levies a tax of Rs 1 per foot on all imported Indian films.

1951 : FFI formed with Chandulal Shah its first president. The Film Enquiry Committee submits its report. Formation of Central Board of Film Censors with B.N. Sircar representing the Film Industry. Russian director Pudovkin and actor Cherkasov visit India traveling to Bombay, Calcutta and Madras to meet Indian Film Makers. Guru Dutt makes his directorial debut with Navketan’s Baazi. The weekly newspaper Screen is set up by the Indian Express Group.

1952 : First International Film Festival held in India traveling to Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras. Parliament passes the Cinematograph Act of 1952 replacing 1918 Act though with little changes. A film delegation lead by Chandulal Shah visits Hollywood to study its working and to meet prominent filmmakers there. Parasakti, the most famous DMK film is released. Colour Films Aan and Jhansi ki Rani are made. Filmfare claiming to be ‘first serious effort in film journalism in India’ launched. Hindi tabloid Cinema begins publication. West Pakistan bans import of Indian Films. Bombay Talkies ceases production.

1953 : Censorship rules amended for re-certification of films every five years and for depositing a copy of the script or film with the Censor Board. Prabhat Studio ceases production. The Cinematograph Act is amended extending the power of various authorities to suspend exhibition of certified films. The Film Federation of India accepts an Advertising Code. The Trade Weekly Trade Guide is started. Maiden Filmfare Awards are inaugurated.

1954 : P.K. Atre’s Marathi Film Shyamchi Aayee bags the first President’s Gold Medal as the Best feature Film of 1953. Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen also made in 1953 gets special mention at Cannes. Indian Film Festival held in the Soviet Union. Awaara (1951) is a major hit in the USSR. Government publishes its decision on the S.K. Patil Enquiry Committee Recommendations. K.A. Abbas’s film Munna is the second songless film. Talks between the Film Federation of India and the Government fail over All-India Radio’s policy of broadcasting film songs without crediting sources, driving producers to Radio Ceylon. The compulsory exhibition of ‘approved’ films (Government propaganda films) in Madras is declared unlawful by the Supreme Court. Last ditch effort to save Bombay Talkies - Badbaan fails. Death of Baburao Painter.

1955 : Pather Panchali directed by Satyajit Ray has its world premier at Museum of Modern Art, New York. Sangeet Natak Akademi organizes film seminar in Delhi at which prominent film personalities participate. Festivals of Indian Cinema in Beijing and London. The Children’s Film Society is set up. The South Indian Film Chamber of Commerce starts The Journal of the Film Chamber. The High Court at Andhra Pradesh grants an interim stay on the law of compulsory exhibition of ‘approved’ films and on the show tax.

1956 : Pather Panchali wins President’s Gold Medal as Best Film of 1955. It also wins an award at Cannes as Best Human Document. Silver Jubilee of the Indian Talkie (1931-56) celebrated in Bombay. The Government refuses to make its ‘approved’ compulsory propaganda films available free of charge to exhibitors. The freeze on construction of new cinemas in Bombay is lifted. The Kerala Film Chamber is started in Cochin. The Andhra Film Journal is launched in Vijaywada. Hindi journal Film Sangeet published. Rossellini starts work on India 57. Despite major Government support and funds, his visa is allowed to expire after a variety of controversies including allegations that he infringed local moral codes.

1957 : Satyajit Ray’s Aparajito (1956) wins the Golden Lion at Venice Film Festival. K.A. Abbas makes the first Indo-Soviet co-production Pardesi. RK Films’ Jagte Raho wins Grand Prix at the Karlovy Vary Festival. Kabuliwala receives a special mention for music in Berlin. Raw stock is declared an essential commodity and its import is centrally controlled. The Cinematograph Bill intended to start a National Film Board, Production Bureau and Film Institute is withdrawn. Chidananda Das Gupta, Satyajit Ray and others start the Indian Film Quarterly.

1958 : Mother India wins an Oscar nomination for Best Foreign Film and loses to Fellini’s Nights of Caberia by a solitary vote. Nargis wins Best Actress for the film at Karlovy Vary Festival. Do Aankhen Barah Haath wins the President’s Gold Medal for Best Feature of 1957. It also wins a Silver Bear at Berlin and the Samuel Goldwyn Award for Best foreign film. Ajantrik is shown in Cannes, out of competition. Death of D.N. Sampath, founder of Kohinoor Talkies.

1959 : Pather Panchali runs for over seven months at the Fifth Avenue Playhouse, New York and sets a record for foreign films released in the United States. Federation of Film Societies formed with Satyajit Ray as President. India’s first film in cinemascope, Kaagaz ke Phool.

1960 : Film Finance Corporation (FFC) formed with authorized capital of Rs 1 crore. The Government of India acquires Prabhat Studios to set up The Film Institute of India. The Institute for Film Technology is started in Madras. The Hindustan Photo Film manufacturing Co. starts making B&W X-ray film. Ranadheera Kanteerava is the first big Kannada hit establishing its star, Rajkumar. K.Asif’s Mughal-e-Azam hits the screen after almost 10 years in the making and is a resounding success. Gandhian Sarvodaya workers start a series of protests against indecent film posters and hoardings. The weekly tabloid Movieland is launched in Madras.

1961 : Mrinal Sen’s Baishey Sravan shown at National Film Theatre in London draws great critical acclaim. First Rajasthani film, Babasa Ri Laadi.

1962 : Second International Film Festival is held in New Delhi. Ray makes his first film in colour, Kanchenjunga. Pakistan bans Indian films in East Pakistan hitting the Bengali Cinema pretty hard. Indian Film Culture, the journal of the Federation of Film Societies of India is launched in Calcutta.

1963 : Indian Film Industry celebrates its golden jubilee. The Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation (IMPEC) is formed. The first Indian Merchant-Ivory Film, The Householder. Barnouw and Krishnaswamy’s Indian Film is published. The Journal of the CTA of South India, a Madras based monthly is started. It is probably the first technical film journal in India and reports on the work of major technicians in the South.

1964 : National Film Archive of India set up in Pune. The Film Institute at Adyar, Madras starts. First Indian film shot extensively abroad - Raj Kapoor’s Sangam. Report on Indian Cinema for UNESCO by Jerzy Toeplitz, President of FIAF. First Kashmiri Film Naizraat. Death of Guru Dutt.

1965 : Dev Anand’s Company Navketan produces jointly with Pearl Buck an American version of Guide based on R.K. Narayan’s novel and directed by Ted Danielowski. The International Film Festival of India turns competitive.

1966 : Ramu Kariat’s Chemeen wins the President’s Gold Medal as Best Feature of 1965, the first Malayalam Film to win the honour. Ritwik Ghatak joins the Film Institute of India. Karnataka initiates a scheme to subsidize all films made in the State. The initial subsidy is Rs 50,000 for a B&W and Rs 1,00,000 for a colour film. The first film in Dogri, Kumar Kuldip’s Gallan Hoyian Beetiyan.

1967 : Hindustan Photo Films makes India self sufficient in B&W and sound negative film. Around the World, first 70mm Indian Film. Start of the Bengali film Monthly Chitrabikshan. M.G. Ramachandran is shot at and injured by co-star M.R. Radha. The Vividh Bharati Channel on All-India Radio goes commercial in Bombay, Pune and Nagpur.

1968 : Month long retrospective of Indian Films organized by B.D. Garga opens at Palais de Chaillot, Cinamatheque Francaise. Bombay Cinema Houses close in protest against Maharshtra State taxation policy. The Khosla Committee submits report on censorship to the Government. K.A. Abbas’s Char Shaher Ek kahani sparks a major censorship controversy. A manifesto for New Indian Cinema is issued by Mrinal Sen and Arun Kaul, advocating a state sponsored author-cinema. The State owned Jyoti-Chitraban studio is inaugurated in Kahilipara, Guwahati, Assam.

1969 : Mrinal Sen’s Bhuvan Shome in Hindi becomes a trendsetter for low budget offbeat films. In the wake of its commercial success FFC declares its policy to back low budget offbeat films. Uski Roti directed by Mani Kaul also produced by the FFC. Aradhana makes Rajesh Khanna a megastar. Publication of P.Parrains’s Regards sur le cinema indien in Paris. First Satyajit Ray retrospective held at the Cinematheque, Paris. Deaths of S.S. Vasan and Ardheshir Irani.

1970 : Pattabai Rama Reddy’s Sanskara becomes path breaker for low budget Kannada cinema. Devika Rani is the first recipient of the Dadasaheb Phalke Award. English gossip magazine Stardust launched. Close Up (no. 5/6) publishes a special number on ‘The Indian film Scene.’ Journal of the Kerala Film Chamber starts. Firoze Rangoonwala comes out with Indian Filmography: Silent and Hindi Films 1897-1969.

1971 : Agreement between the Indian Government and the MPEAA is allowed to expire. The directive to the FFC to sponsor independent film-making is written into its official objectives. Shantata! Court Chalu Aahe starts the New Indian Cinema Movement in Marathi. Deaths of Debaki Bose and K. Asif

1972 : First art house cinema opened by the FFC. First features in Manipuri (Matamgi Manipur) and Coorgi (Nada Manne Nada Koolu). MGR is expelled from the DMK and forms the ADMK. The first co-operative run by technicians, The Chitralekha Co-op, starts production with Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s debut Swayamwaram. The Malayalam film weekly Nana starts. Do Gaz Zameen ke Neeche establishes the Ramsay brothers and the horror genre in Hindi. Deaths of Prithviraj Kapoor, Geeta Dutt and Meena Kumari. Pakeezah goes on to become a big hit after Meena Kumari’s death.

1973 : The FFC becomes channelising agency for import and distribution of raw stock. The Government imposes 250% import duty on raw film. First Haryanvi Film (Beera Shera). Bobby reinvigorates the love story genre. Zanjeer launches Amitabh Bachchan as the ‘angry young man.’ Shyam Benegal’s Ankur is a commercial success starting the middle-of-the-road cinema of the independently financed, commercially designed art-house movie, a genre that soon dominates state-sponsored film and television. Launch of the Bombay based weekly trade paper Film Information providing the most reliable listings of Hindi Cinema.

1974 : Hindustan Photo Films starts limited production of positive colour stock. The Film Festival of India becomes an annual event. The Film Institute of India is registered as an autonomous society and is merged with the TV training centre to become the Film and Television Institute of India (FTII).

1975 : A new agreement with the MPEAA means that US films can be imported again. Sholay, India’s first film in 70mm stereophonic sound and perhaps India’s biggest cult film is released and breaks box-office records. The other big surprise hit of the year is Jai Santoshi Ma. The Bengali film fortnightly Anandalok starts. Death of S.D.

1976 : Strict censorship of films during the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi. Amrit Nahata’s Kissa Kursi ka, a satire on power politics destroyed. The Committee on Public Undertaking attacks the FFC art-film policy. The journal Film Blaze starts in Bombay. Death of Mukesh.

1978 : The Orissa Film Development Corporation announces the financing of ‘Janta Cinema Houses’ in rural and semi-urban areas. Panorama of Indian Cinema at the Carthage Film Festival. The Malayalam film journal Chitrabhoomi is started by the owners of the mainstream daily Mathrubhoomi.

1980 : FFC and Indian Motion Picture Export Corporation merge to form the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC). The Lotus Cinema hired by the FFC becomes Bombay’s only venue for art-house films beginning with Bimal Dutt’s Kasturi (1978). K.S. Karanth’s Report of the Working Group on National Film Policy is published and ignored by the Government. Independent Filmmakers start the Forum for Better Cinema and ask the Government to ask Satyajit Ray to head the organization. Ray turns down the offer. While on Ray, a retrospective of his films is held at the Indian International Film Festival. Mrinal Sen retrospective is held at the National film Theatre, London. The journal Cinema Vision India starts in Bombay with an issue on Silent Cinema in India. Deaths of Mohd. Rafi, Uttam Kumar, Sahir Ludhianvi.

1981 : Indian Film Industry celebrates the golden jubilee of the Indian Talkie. Formation of the short-lived Indian Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Science (IAMPAS). A three part package of Indian Cinema - pre-Ray, a Ray retrospective and New Indian Cinema tours the United States. Special issue on Indian Cinema by the Journal for Asian literature. Death of Nargis.

1982 : Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s Elipattahyam wins prestigious British Film Institute Award. Shekar Kapur’s debut Masoom. Asian games held in Delhi provide the occasion to start telecasting of colour programmes on TV. N.T. Rama Rao starts the Telegu Desam Party. The Tamil Film weekly Gemini Cinema starts. First films in Brijbhasha (Brij Bhoomi) and Malvi (Bhadwa Mata).

1983 : Mrinal Sen’s Kharij wins special Special Jury Prize at Cannes. Bhanu Athaiya becomes the first Indian to win an Oscar for costumes designed for Richard Attenborough’s Gandhi (1982). Panorama of Indian Cinema at the Centre Pompidou, Paris. First film in Garhwali (Jagwal) and Khasi (Ka Lawei Ha Ki Ktijong Ngi). The Karnataka state subsidy to films is increased to Rs one lakh for B&W and Rs 1.5 lakh for colour.

1985 : Indian Cinema Season at Pesaro Film Festival, Italy.

1986 : Death of Smita Patil.

1987 : The NFDC starts the quarterly journal Cinema in India. Death of Kishore Kumar.

1988 : The journals Cinemaya (A quarterly on Asian film) and Deep Focus start. Death of Raj Kapoor.

1989 : Death of Prem Nazir.

1990 : The first Bombay International Film Festival for Documentaries and Short Films held. Satyajit Ray presented the Legion d’honneur by French President Francois Mitterand in Calcutta. Death of V. Shantaram.

1991 : Deaths of Nutan, Durga Khote.

1992 : Satyajit Ray awarded the Oscar for Lifetime Achievement and the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour. Death of Ray. Five selected regional TV channels go national.

1993 : Bill to regulate Cable TV introduced in Lok Sabha. Five more Doordarshan channels are launched. Murdoch’s Star TV acquires 49.9 % shares in the Zee TV network. Controversy over the Choli ke Peeche Kya Hai song in Khalnayak.

1994 : Hum Aapke Hain Kaun is declared the biggest hit in the history of Indian cinema. The Sarkailo Khatiya song in Raja Babu causes a scandal leading to the announcement of amendments in the Censor Code. Shekar Kapur’s Bandit Queen runs into censor problems. Jurassic Park (1992) is dubbed into Hindi and is a big success paving the way for dubbed versions of other Hollywood films.

1995 : Aditya Chopra makes his debut with the mega hit Dilwaale Dulhania Le Jayenge. Mani Ratnam’s Bombay releases after it is cleared by Shiv Sena chief Bal Thakeray. CNN announces a news channel with Doordarshan.

1996 : First V. Shantaram Award for Lifetime Achievement in the field of Documentary Film presented to B.D. Garga. N.T. Rama Rao dies.

1997 : Gulshan Kumar, owner of T-series and pioneer of the audiocassette revolution of the 1990s, is assassinated. Leading music director Nadeem accused of the murder. Accusations abound about the criminalization of the Film Industry.

1998 : The Government declares the Film Industry as a legitimate Industry qualifying it for Institutional Finance. Shekar Kapur makes a major breakthrough in the West with Elizabeth. Both Dil Se and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai enter the UK top 10. A small independent film Hyderabad Blues is the sleeper hit of the year paving the way for the production of a series of low budget ‘different’ films.

1999 : Elizabeth goes on to win several Oscar nominations including one for Best film. Shekar Kapur however misses the Best Director nomination. Manoj Night Shyamalan of Indian origin breaks through Hollywood in a major way following the success of The Sixth Sense. The first fully insured Indian film Taal enters the US top 20. Santosh Sivam’s Terrorist has a successful run at the box office besides being screened at various film festivals around the world. Amitabh Bachchan declared the superstar of the millennium ahead of such greats as Charlie Chaplin and Sir Laurence Olivier.

2000 : Terrorist has a release in the USA. The Sixth Sense receives Oscar nominations in the Best Film, Director and Original Screenplay among other categories but wins none. Kaho na Pyaar Hai introduces the brightest new discovery in Indian Cinema in a long time - Hritik Roshan. IIFA, the Indian International Film Awards launched.

The way is not in the sky, the way is in the heart. --Gautama Buddha
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NATURE
post Jul 24 2005, 05:27 AM
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Great My Dear Bawra Ji ... This is amazing. U know the Complete History ? Very good, liked it ...

Jo Milte hain, voh nahi milte
Aur Jo Nahi Milte, Vohin Vaastav mein milte hai
Kaaran jo hai, voh nahi hai
Aur jo nahi hai, vohin hai.
Ye keval Shabdo ki heraa-pheri nahi hai
Aur heraa-pheri hain bhi
Yehin Darshan hai
Aur isi hone naa hone, milne naa milne ke beech mein
maayaa kaa samudra hai
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post Dec 16 2007, 10:27 AM
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Thanks Bawra Jay, for sharing the amazing info
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pranusha
post Aug 31 2010, 06:32 PM
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That's Gr8. Lot of information on Indian Cinema History.
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